Carnivals in Italy
Carnivals in Europe originated in Italy. Many centuries carnival, folk festival under the open sky, accompanied by numerous masquerades, theatrical games, solemn street processions, is the best tradition of the Italian people. From time immemorial, according to art historian Pavel Pavlovich Muratov (1881-1950), ” hall it was the street itself, and ballroom costume was common to all bautta. More importantly, everyone could enjoy, because he knew how to enjoy it.” Foreigners visiting Italy, admired ” this bright unfeigned cheerfulness, which is now not in other Nations “. (N. In. Gogol, “Rome”.)
Carnival in Venice
Carnival in Venice is one of the most famous carnivals in the world. Every year from all over the world it attracts more than 500,000 of thousands of fans at the Venice festival. Unlike other places, Venetian carnival fully covers the entire city. Colorful festive crowd fills the narrow streets and spacious squares. Carnival has its roots in the deep past. In 1296, the Senate of the Venetian Republic declared a public holiday last day before Lent. Thus, it becomes a public holiday.
The heyday of the Venetian carnivals reached in the 18th century. Then they were not only the highlight of the year, but also the meaning of existence. During the carnival, nothing seemed too shameful, too bold, too reckless, too slutty. Opened hundreds of gambling houses, where he played huge fortunes changed and where lawful husbands and wives unknown “mask”. Not to make the fall carnival in the days and nights when even the Church has become less harsh, it was just obscene. Then came the revolution, and the holiday is almost forgotten. Two hundred years Venice has been without a carnivals, and only in 1980 they resumed.
In our days it is celebrated for about two weeks. City squares are “historical” concerts, fireworks. These days you can mingle with the festive crowd and enjoy the unique costumes and masks. Music and wine flow like water. In theatres: performances on the theme of the carnival. In the old palaces of the city are masquerade balls for the elite audience.
The carnival in Viareggio
Carnival in Wiredzone less famous than Venice, and famous for the fact that he is the most colorful and funny. Its main attraction are the platform with the dolls and the giant papier-mache. Eight of the best artists in Viareggio create them for over a year — so that each puppet can be considered a work of art!
Imagine this: a ton of paper mache, about four hundred pounds of paint — that’s how much goes to create a wagon. Not surprising — its height is 25 m. And to move it will take the efforts of 30 people.
In the carnival procession is involved in almost all the urban population. The townspeople carry carts with huge dolls depicting characters from the Commedia del Arte, known in Italy politicians, cultural figures, athletes themselves and dress up in bright costumes.
Two weeks of carnival turn Viareggio in a bubbling stream of balls, festivals, shows, songs and dances — it captures and kills everyone who comes his way.
In Florence and Verona are also deployed festive events – that carnival train, a masquerade ball, live concerts and theatrical performances.
Today on the Italian carnival tourists mostly prefer to be passive observers.
A division into performers and spectators is a violation of the main carnival of the law – vsenarodnoe. It destroys the harmony necessary for natural life masks. On this occasion, M. M. Bakhtin writes: “a Special carnival attitude with his vsenarodnomu, liberty,would be utopian, the future begins to turn into a festive mood “. Gradually disappears, and spirit masks. Significant brake in the revival of folk traditions of the carnival is the desire of the city authorities to take him under his strict control. It is possible that it is all fun and prevents anxiety about the future of Venice. As you know, its houses built on stilts, gradually and inexorably sinking into the sea.
But, nostalgia for a bygone time when the carnival used not end, and in every house there was a ball, a dream of a new meeting with him, help the Italians to overcome many of life’s difficulties. Great contribution to the revival of the carnival made exmar Venice Antonio Casellato. During his nearly 20 years ago, made persistent attempts to revive the tradition based on the laws of carnival – freedom and relaxedness. These attempts have been successful and are continuing.