For almost half a century, the carnival in Rio – the most famous in the world.
• it sets the tone for the carnivals in Europe and America. its the modern world Brazilian carnival has developed quite recently, in the first half of the twentieth century. Tied to the lunar calendar, Easter and lent, Brazilian carnival, like Mardi Gras – holiday mobile, it is the end of February or beginning of March.
• From a European tradition of solemn processions future Brazilian carnival borrowed lush robes (to make them parties to spare neither money nor time) and carnival carts, called in Latin carrus navalis (the”wagon ” ship”), and Spanish simply “karros” .
• Current Brazilian carnival carnival unthinkable without associations – voluntary communities (sometimes numbering up to several thousand people) presented on separate processions processions with their own Kiarostami.
• Immediate predecessors carnival associations were African theatrical procession with music, singing and dancing, Dating back to pagan rituals – kardous and ranches. Among obligatory characters of this action were king, clowns, Indians, the dead, the devils, the teacher is the conductor and “the parade commander”, which all implicitly obeyed. And ahead was “znamenosec”, a woman with painted flag of the group.
• The most important figures at the carnival: Queen (during the year it is taken among the contenders in the tough beauty contests), her “husband” king Momo . a glutton and a rake (it is chosen on the basis of quite different criteria: aged 18 to 50, weight – not less than 110 kg) and Malandro – jester, rogue, renegade, wit and Joker, smeialsi everything. In this character, by nature opposed to any regulation of, and imbued with the true spirit of Brazilian carnival. King Momo is still in the 40’s T. T. was a doll. And only in the 50s in the image of Momo began to speak.
• European in origin, the carnival has become a truly Brazilian only when he absorbed the life-giving stream of African blood . namely, in the 20-ies of the last century – from then on, how did the so-called Samba school. This is the time of the birth of the Brazilian carnival.
• African word “Samba” . associated with the pagan cult of the goddess of fertility, when used to mean ritual gestures: dancers touch each other’s bellies, mimicking the act of love. Gradually these movements have lost ritual-magic sense and turned into elements of a sensual dance. In the 20th century Samba in altered form, resulted in the popular genre of urban folklore. Blacks and mulattos were created by musical and dance groups and arranged the fancy – dance procession on the eve of Great lent. Unlike the previous carnival, the Samba schools had not broken up immediately after the carnival procession, and worked the whole year, teaching the art of dance.
• First carnival took place in the city centre. And then the number of participants has grown so much that they felt cramped in the narrow streets of the old Rio. In 50-ies of the last century, the procession started along the main capital Avenue Rio Branco. When the Avenue was no longer accommodate the crowd of people, the famous Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer designed for carnival special stadium with a length of 700m. It was opened in 1984, called the sambadrome .
• the carnival in Rio has two faces. One turned to the judges box at the sambadrome, the other turned towards the city streets. Everything connected with the competition of Samba schools, is characterized by an almost military regulations. In detail the program of the carnival signs and approved long before: each Samba school stands out in the fashion show of its time. And God forbid to linger in front of the judges box – will lose the chance of winning.
• Strict construction is different and defile each school, which will sambadrome more than a thousand people. Ahead carry banners with the words “‘abri alas” (“open wings”): the Samba school welcomes the audience; then in the same clothes is “the Directorate’ schools; followed by “boys” 0 rows girls performing gymnastic exercises; then proudly strutting «znamenosec” led “Academy” dance of the nucleus of the school; next, move the men’s choir, music ensembles and the main part of the column – ornate Carosi mixed with alas (wings), dance groups, continuously dancing the Samba.
• a Real carnival takes place not at the sambadrome, and on the streets of Rio de Janeiro and other Brazilian cities. In Rio there are more than 150 carnival associations, which on festive streets recklessly having fun day and night. Unlike the official Samba schools they do not recognize the rules and are ready to accept the first counter.